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Passive RFID Tags

The passive RFID tags have no power and get a signal from an RFID reader. The RFID reader transmits energy to an antenna, which turns it into an RF wave that is transmitted into the read zone. The passive RFID tags's internal antenna absorbs energy from the RF waves after the passive RFID tag is read within the read zone. The energy is transferred from the tag's antenna to the IC, which powers the chip and transmits a signal to the RF system. Backscatter is the term for this phenomenon. The RFID reader (through the antenna) detects the backscatter, or change in the electromagnetic or RF wave, and analyzes the data.

As previously stated, passive RFID tags do not have an internal power source, and a typical passive RFID tag consists just of an IC and an internal antenna; this basic structure is known as an RFID inlay. There are numerous additional forms of passive RFID tags on the market, but they all fall into one of two categories: inlays or hard tags. Hard RFID tags are comprised of plastic, metal, ceramic, and even rubber and are extremely durable. They exist in a variety of forms and sizes, and they're usually made for a specific function, material, or application.

High Temperature - Some businesses, such as healthcare, keep track of how many cycles devices go through in severe autoclaves. Passive RFID tags are engineered to endure severe temperatures and can be used in a variety of applications, including those mentioned above.

Rugged - Passive RFID Tags used in harsh warehouses or outdoor areas must be able to endure snow and ice, dust and debris, and even the crushing pressures felt under a tractor wheel. In order for these applications to be successful, an extremely robust passive tag is required.

Size – Some applications have specific size constraints when tracking small or large items. Size is one of the more important questions to answer when choosing an RFID tag because there are many different sizes available.

Materials – If an application requires tracking metal assets, UHF metal-mount tags may be the only option. These tags are specifically designed to mitigate the problems UHF RFID faces around the metal.

Embeddable – If tagging an item becomes a problem for specific applications due to significant wear and tear, embeddable tags can fit in small crevices and be covered in epoxy so the RFID tag is out of harm’s way.

The price of a passive RFID tag

Inlays are the cheapest RFID tags, costing as little as {qesy:info}.12 per tag in large quantities, however price has no bearing on performance.

Frequency of passive RFID tags

The frequency of operation of passive RFID tags varies. Passive RFID tags are available in three different frequencies. The read range, attachment materials, and application possibilities are all heavily influenced by the frequency range, as well as other parameters.

Low Frequency (LF) – 125-134 KHz A wavelength that is exceptionally long yet has a short read range of roughly 1 to 10 cm. Because it is unaffected by water or metal, this frequency is commonly employed in animal tracking.

High Frequency (HF) and Near-Field Communication (NFC) – 13.56 MHz With an usual read range of about 1 centimeter to 1 meter, this is a medium wavelength. Data transmissions, access control applications, DVD kiosks, and passport security — applications that do not require a long read range – all use this frequency.

Ultra High Frequency (UHF) – 865 – 960 MHz A one-meter long, high-energy wavelength that correlates to a long read range. Passive UHF tags can be read from a distance of around 5 to 6 meters in perfect conditions, although bigger UHF tags can attain read ranges of up to 30 meters in ideal conditions. Because all of these applications require more than a meter of read range, this frequency is commonly employed with race timing, IT asset tracking, file tracking, and laundry management.

Higher frequencies, on average, have shorter, higher-energy wavelengths and, as a result, longer read ranges. Furthermore, the higher the frequency, the more problems an RFID system will have with non-RFID-friendly materials such as water and metal.

Advantages of Passive RFID:

Small rfid tags

Cheapest rfid tags

Thinner/more flexible RFID tags

long-range rfid tag options

Without a battery, passive RFID tags can last a lifetime (depending on the wear and tear)

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